Índices de qualidade ambiental das águas do riacho Caañabe mediante testes microbiológicos e ecotoxicológicos

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Abstract

The Caañabe stream is a watercourse that runs between the Departments Central and Paraguarí (Republic of Paraguay). Discharges of agricultural origin, urban and industrial pollute its waters. In this work the quality of the stream was assessed by its physicochemical characteristics, ecotoxicological, microbiological and compared with the current legislation. Samples were collected in July and September of 2014 from three study sites: S1, situated upstream from the city of Carapegua; S2, situated at the intersection of the stream and Route 1; and S3, situated at the border area between the cities of Carapegua and Nueva Italia. Assays were performed for acute toxicity in Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and fingerlings of Danio rerio, as well as assays for chronic toxicity in Tetradesmus wisconsinenesis, D. rerio and Allium cepa. The following microbial groups and species were determined: aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterobacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, molds and yeasts; and the quality and contamination indices were determined. The results indicate that the waters of the stream presented Class II and Class III features according to the standards set by the Secretariat of the Environment in Paraguay. The water quality index (ICA by its Spanish acronym) gave values between 52 and 62, which allows the classification of “regular”; while the trophic contamination index (ICOTRO by its Spanish acronym) presented values between 0.12 and 0.26, indicating “eutrophication”. The coliform recount was higher in the second sampling, although within the limits established by the standards. The presence of P. aeruginosa at the three points represents a health risk. Ecotoxicological assays showed that the waters produced few lethal effects; however, the chronic assays in A. cepa and the micronucleus test in D. rerio indicate potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

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Arias, T. L., Peralta, V. F., de Diana, D. M. F., Delgado, E. G., Márquez, F. S. A., Martínez, M. D. B., … Bareiro, C. G. M. (2016). Índices de qualidade ambiental das águas do riacho Caañabe mediante testes microbiológicos e ecotoxicológicos. Revista Ambiente e Agua, 11(3), 548–565. https://doi.org/10.4136/ambi-agua.1703

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