Thromboelastography (TEG (R)) provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG (R) parameters analyzed were R, K, alpha, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer's normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95\% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, alpha: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77\%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81\% specificity). Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not associated with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer's normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81\% and would incorrectly identify 8.5\% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer's recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG (R), a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG (R).
Scarpelini, S., Rhind, S. G., Nascimento, B., Tien, H., Shek, P. N., Peng, H. T., … Rizoli, S. B. (2009). Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 42(12), 1210–1217. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-879x2009007500002