Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated. Methods: A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9±2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internalconsistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations = 0.74-0.91) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56-0.78), but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction. © 2014 Lin et al.
Lin, Y. H., Chang, L. R., Lee, Y. H., Tseng, H. W., Kuo, T. B. J., & Chen, S. H. (2014). Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). PLoS ONE, 9(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098312