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Abiraterone and MDV3100 inhibits the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells through mitophagy

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Abstract

Background: Abiraterone and MDV3100 are two effective anticancer agents for prostate cancer, however, the mechanism of their downstream action remains undefined. Methods: A dual fluorescent biosensor plasmid was transfected in LNCaP cells to measure mitophagy. The DNA of LNCaP cells was extracted and performed with quantitative real-time PCR to detect mitochondrial DNA copy number. JC-1 staining was utilized to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and electron microscope was performed to analyze mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, the protein levels of mitochondrial markers and apoptotic markers were detected by western blot. At last, the proliferation and apoptosis of LNCaP cells were analyzed with CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry after abiraterone or MDV3100 treatment. Results: Mitophagy was induced by abiraterone and MDV3100 in LNCaP cells. The low expression level of mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial depolarization were further identified in the abiraterone or MDV3100 treatment groups compared with the control group. Besides, severe mitochondria swelling and substantial autophagy-lysosomes were observed in abiraterone- and MDV3100-treated LNCaP cells. The expression of mitochondria-related proteins, frataxin, ACO2 and Tom20 were significantly downregulated in abiraterone and MDV3100 treated LNCaP cells, whereas the expression level of inner membrane protein of mitochondria (Tim23) was significantly upregulated in the same condition. Moreover, the proliferation of LNCaP cells were drastically inhibited, and the apoptosis of LNCaP cells was increased in abiraterone or MDV3100 treatment groups. Meanwhile, the addition of mitophagy inhibitor Mdivi-1 (mitochondrial division inhibitor 1) could conversely elevate proliferation and constrain apoptosis of LNCaP cells. Conclusions: Our results prove that both abiraterone and MDV3100 inhibit the proliferation, promote the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells through regulating mitophagy. The promotion of mitophagy might enhance the efficacy of abiraterone and MDV3100, which could be a potential strategy to improve chemotherapy with these two reagents.

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Han, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, W., Zhang, D., Li, Y., Zhang, J., … Zou, L. (2019). Abiraterone and MDV3100 inhibits the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells through mitophagy. Cancer Cell International, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-019-1021-9

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