Over the past years, parties often described as populist, such as SYRIZA in Greece, the Five Star Movement (FSM) in Italy and Podemos in Spain have made significant electoral breakthroughs, unsettling well-established party systems. In the literature, inclusionary populism has primarily been applied to Latin America whereas the three Southern European parties have been examined individually, but not in comparative perspective. The purpose of this article is to provide a comparative analysis, based on an original electoral manifestos content analysis, aimed at unveiling the 'inclusionary populism' features of the 'new' political parties that have emerged in Southern Europe. By focusing on the 2012-16 period, the article shows that the inclusionary category can be fruitfully applied also to European political parties; it finds different degrees of inclusionary populism (namely between SYRIZA and Podemos); and it proves that the FSM falls between the two exclusionary vs. inclusionary poles.
Font, N., Graziano, P., & Tsakatika, M. (2021). Varieties of Inclusionary Populism? SYRIZA, Podemos and the Five Star Movement. Government and Opposition, 56(1), 163–183. https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2019.17