Surgical configurations of the pectoralis major flap for reconstruction of sternoclavicular defects: a systematic review and new classification of described techniques

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The pectoralis major flap has been considered the workhorse flap for chest and sternoclavicular defect reconstruction. There have been many configurations of the pectoralis major flap reported in the literature for use in reconstruction sternoclavicular defects either involving bone, soft tissue elements, or both. This study reviews the different configurations of the pectoralis major flap for sternoclavicular defect reconstruction and provides the first ever classification for these techniques. We also provide an algorithm for the selection of these flap variants for sternoclavicular defect reconstruction. METHODS: EMBASE, Cochrane library, Ovid medicine and PubMed databases were searched from its inception to August of 2019. We included all studies describing surgical management of sternoclavicular defects. The studies were reviewed, and the different configurations of the pectoralis major flap used for sternoclavicular defect reconstruction were cataloged. We then proposed a new classification system for these procedures. RESULTS: The study included 6 articles published in the English language that provided a descriptive procedure for the use of pectoralis major flap in the reconstruction of sternoclavicular defects. The procedures were classified into three broad categories. In Type 1, the whole pectoris muscle is used. In Type 2, the pectoralis muscle is split and either advanced medially (type 2a) or rotated (type 2b) to fill the defect. In type 3, the clavicular portion of the pectoralis is islandized on a pedicle, either the thoracoacromial artery (type 3a) or the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial artery (type 3b). CONCLUSION: There are multiple configurations of the pectoralis flap reported in the English language literature for the reconstruction of sternoclavicular defects. Our classification system, the Opoku Classification will help surgeons select the appropriate configuration of the pectoralis major flap for sternoclavicular joint defect reconstruction based on size of defect, the status of the vascular anatomy, and acceptability of upper extremity disability. It will also help facilitate communication when describing the different configurations of the pectoralis major flap for reconstruction of sternoclavicular joint defects.

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Opoku-Agyeman, J., Matera, D., & Simone, J. (2019). Surgical configurations of the pectoralis major flap for reconstruction of sternoclavicular defects: a systematic review and new classification of described techniques. BMC Surgery, 19(1), 136. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12893-019-0604-7

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