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Background: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an integrated CMR method incorporating dynamic oximetry, blood flow and pulse-wave velocimetry to assess vascular reactivity in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and healthy controls. Methods and results. The study population consisted of young healthy subjects (YH, 30 ± 7 yrs, N = 19),PAD (71 ± 9 yrs, N = 38), and older healthy controls (OHC, 68 ± 9 yrs, N = 43). Peripheral vascular reactivity was evaluated with two methods, time-resolved quantification of blood flow velocity and oxygenation level in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, performed simultaneously both at rest and hyperemia. Aortic stiffness was assessed via pulse-wave velocity. Oximetric data showed that compared to OHC, the time-course of the hemoglobin oxygen saturation in PAD patients had longer washout time (28.6 ± 1.2 vs 16.9 ± 1.1 s, p < 0.0001), reduced upslope (0.60 ± 0.1 vs 1.3 ± 0.08 HbO§ssub§2§esub§/sec, p < 0.0001) and lower overshoot (8 ± 1.4 vs 14 ± 1.2 HbO§ssub§2§ esub§, p = 0.0064). PAD patients also had longer-lasting antegrade femoral artery flow during hyperemia (51 ± 2.1 vs 24 ± 1.8 s, p < 0.0001), and reduced peak-to-baseline flow rate (3.1 ± 0.5 vs 7.4 ± 0.4, p < 0.0001). Further, the pulsatility at rest was reduced (0.75 ± 0.32 vs 5.2 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001), and aortic PWV was elevated (10.2 ± 0.4 vs 8.1 ± 0.4 m/s, p = 0.0048). Conclusion: The proposed CMR protocol quantifies multiple aspects of vascular reactivity and represents an initial step toward development of a potential tool for evaluating interventions, extrapolating clinical outcomes and predicting functional endpoints based on quantitative parameters. © 2013 Langham et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Langham, M. C., Englund, E. K., Mohler, E. R., Li, C., Rodgers, Z. B., Floyd, T. F., & Wehrli, F. W. (2013). Quantitative CMR markers of impaired vascular reactivity associated with age and peripheral artery disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-15-17