The diversity of the colonic microbial community has been linked with health in adults and diet composition is one possible determinant of diversity. We used carefully controlled conditions in vitro to determine how the complexity and multiplicity of growth substrates influence species diversity of the human colonic microbiota. In each experiment, five parallel anaerobic fermenters that received identical faecal inocula were supplied continuously with single carbohydrates (either arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), pectin or inulin) or with a '3-mix' of all three carbohydrates, or with a '6-mix' that additionally contained resistant starch, β-glucan and galactomannan as energy sources. Inulin supported less microbial diversity over the first 6 d than the other two single substrates or the 3- and 6-mixes, showing that substrate complexity is key to influencing microbiota diversity. The communities enriched in these fermenters did not differ greatly at the phylum and family level, but were markedly different at the species level. Certain species were promoted by single substrates, whilst others (such as Bacteroides ovatus, LEfSe P = 0.001) showed significantly greater success with the mixed substrate. The complex polysaccharides such as pectin and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides promoted greater diversity than simple homopolymers, such as inulin. These findings suggest that dietary strategies intended to achieve health benefits by increasing gut microbiota diversity should employ complex non-digestible substrates and substrate mixtures.
Chung, W. S. F., Walker, A. W., Vermeiren, J., Sheridan, P. O., Bosscher, D., Garcia-Campayo, V., … Duncan, S. H. (2018). Impact of carbohydrate substrate complexity on the diversity of the human colonic microbiota. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 95(1). https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy201