Two types of optical choppers for time-resolved measurements at synchrotron radiation soft X-ray beamlines have been developed. One type uses an air-spindle-type rotation mechanism with a two-stage differential pumping system to maintain the ultra-high vacuum of the X-ray beamline, and the other uses a magnetic bearing. Both can be installed at the soft X-ray beamlines at SPring-8, greatly improving the accessibility of pump-and-probe spectroscopy. The combination of X-ray chopper and pump-and-probe photoemission electron microscope at SPring-8 provides drastic improvements in signal-to-noise ratio and resolution compared with techniques using high-voltage gating of channel plate detectors. The choppers have the capability to be used not only at synchrotron radiation facilities but also at other types of soft X-ray and VUV beamlines.
Osawa, H., Ohkochi, T., Fujisawa, M., Kimura, S., & Kinoshita, T. (2017). Development of optical choppers for time-resolved measurements at soft X-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 24(3), 560–565. https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577517002399