Background: Cell cycle regulatory pathway is a well-established pathway mainly dependent on cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which are regulated positively by cyclins and negatively by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors(CKIs). Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associate protein 1(CDK2-AP1) is a specific negative regulatory protein for CDK2, is important in the cancer cell cycle. However, the function of CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer remains unclear. We designed therefore explored the effects of CDK2-AP1 on breast cancer growth and its chemo-sensitivity. Methods: Expression of CDK2-AP1, CDK2 and CyclinD1 in 209 cases of pathological specimens using IHC staining was measured. Lost-of-function and Gain-of-function assays were used in vivo and in vitro relating to the specific role of CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer. We analyzed in vivo and in vitro the impact of CDK2-AP1 on chemotherapy sensitivity in breast cancer. Results: The positive ratio of CDK2-AP1 expression was reduced successively in normal breast tissue, DCIS, invasive breast cancer and relapsed breast cancer, however, with CDK2 and CyclinD1 it was suggested that CDK2-AP1 was correlated closely with the tumorigenesis and progress, and might work as a tumor suppressor. After down-regulating CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer cells, the cell cycle was accelerated and cell proliferation enhanced. The cell cycle was arrested in G0/G1 phase and G2/M phase after up-regulating CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. The expression of CDK2 and CyclinD1 changed accordingly after downregulation or upregulation of CDK2-AP1 by western blot, suggesting a role of the CDK2-AP1/CDK2/CyclinD1 cell cycle pathway in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Similar results were obtained in animal assays. The data indicates that CDK2-AP1 can induce sensitivity to docetaxel treatment in breast cancer cells. Conclusions: CDK2-AP1 affects tumorigenesis, tumor growth and chemo-sensitivity by cell cycle regulation, which can potentially to be a therapeutical agent in breast cancer.
He, X., Xiang, H., Zong, X., Yan, X., Yu, Y., Liu, G., … Yang, H. (2014). CDK2-AP1 inhibits growth of breast cancer cells by regulating cell cycle and increasing docetaxel sensitivity in vivo and in vitro. Cancer Cell International, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-014-0130-8