Background--Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a leading cause of mortality and lifelong morbidity in preterm infants. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is a common complication of GMH. A sodium-coupled bicarbonate exchanger (NCBE) encoded by solute carrier family 4 member 10 gene is expressed on the choroid plexus basolateral membrane and may play a role in cerebrospinal fluid production and the development of PHH. Following GMH, iron degraded from hemoglobin has been linked to PHH. Choroid plexus epithelial cells also contain iron-responsive element-binding proteins (IRPs), IRP1, and IRP2 that bind to mRNA ironresponsive elements. The present study aims to resolve the following issues: (1) whether the expression ofNCBE is regulated by IRPs; (2) whether NCBE regulates the formation of GMH-induced hydrocephalus; and (3) whether inhibition of NCBE reduces PHH development. Methods and Results--GMH model was established in P7 rat pups by injecting bacterial collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence. Another group received iron trichloride injections instead of collagenase. Deferoxamine was administered intraperitoneally for 3 consecutive days after GMH/iron trichloride. Solute carrier family 4 member 10 small interfering RNA or scrambled small interfering RNA was administered by intracerebroventricular injection 24 hours before GMH and followed with an injection every 7 days over 21 days. NCBE expression increased while IRP2 expression decreased after GMH/iron trichloride. Deferoxamine ameliorated both the GMH-induced and iron trichloride-induced decrease of IRP2 and decreased NCBE expressions. Deferoxamine and solute carrier family 4 member 10 small interfering RNA improved cognitive and motor functions at 21 to 28 days post GMH and reduced cerebrospinal fluid production as well as the degree of hydrocephalus at 28 days after GMH. Conclusions--Targeting iron-induced overexpression of NCBE may be a translatable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PHH following GMH.
Li, Q., Ding, Y., Krafft, P., Wan, W., Yan, F., Wu, G., … Zhang, J. H. (2018). Targeting germinal matrix hemorrhage-induced overexpression of sodium-coupled bicarbonate exchanger reduces Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus formation in neonatal rats. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.007192