This paper presents recent advances in applying particle swarm optimization (PSO) to antenna designs in engineering electromagnetics. By linking the PSO kernel with external electromagnetic (EM) analyzers, the algorithm has the flexibility to handle both real and binary variables, as well as multiobjective problems with more than one optimization goal. Three examples, including the designs of a dual-band patch antenna, an artificial ground plane of a surface wave antenna, and an aperiodic antenna array, are presented. Both simulation and measurement results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of applying the swarm intelligence to design antennas with desired frequency response and radiation characteristics for practical EM applications.
Jin, N., & Rahmat-Samii, Y. (2008). Particle Swarm Optimization for Antenna Designs in Engineering Electromagnetics. Journal of Artificial Evolution and Applications, 2008, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/728929