The interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory factors, anti-inflammatory proteins, and lung function in male smokers: a randomized controlled trial

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, CC16, SP-D, and CC16/SP-D ratio) and lung function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ratio) in male smokers. Methods: After applying inclusion criteria, a total of 40 healthy male smokers were recruited in this study. The participants were randomly divided into four groups as follows: Aerobic Exercise + vitamin D Supplementation (AE + VitD, n = 10), Aerobic Exercise (AE, n = 10), vitamin D Supplementation (VitD, n = 10), and Control (C, n = 10). The participants in the AE + VitD and AE groups performed aerobic exercise training (running) up to 50% of the maximum heart rate, three times a week for four weeks. Participants in AE + VitD and VitD groups received 6000 IU/w vitamin D3 for four weeks. The participants in control group did not receive any intervention. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, Clara cell protein (CC16), surfactant protein (SP)-D, CC16/SP-D ratio, and lung function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ratio) were measured before and after four weeks of intervention. Results: Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CC16 decreased significantly in AE + VitD, VitD, and AE groups after four weeks (P < 0.05). Serum SP-D level decreased significantly only in the AE + VitD group (P = 0.011). In addition, FEV1 and FVC increased significantly (P < 0.05) in AE + VitD and AE groups after four weeks of intervention. However, the interventions did not have a significant effect on CC16/SP-D ratio and FEV1/FVC ratio (P > 0.05). Furthermore, serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D increased significantly in AE + VitD and VitD groups (P < 0.05) after four weeks of intervention. However, except for TNF-α, between-group comparisons showed no significant differences in levels of IL-6, CC16, SP-D, CC16/SP-D ratio, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of present study were that aerobic exercise combined with vitamin D supplementation can reduce serum inflammatory factors and anti-inflammatory proteins and improve lung function after four weeks of intervention. Further trials with larger sample size and longer duration are suggested to confirm these results. Trial registration Retrospectively registered. IRCT20180513039637N4. Registration date: 2020/10/20. URL: https://www.irct.ir/search/result?query=IRCT20180513039637N4

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Nikniaz, L., Ghojazadeh, M., Nateghian, H., Nikniaz, Z., Farhangi, M. A., & Pourmanaf, H. (2021). The interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory factors, anti-inflammatory proteins, and lung function in male smokers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00333-w

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