Drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization is associated with healthcare utilization and antimicrobial use among inpatients in Pune, India

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Abstract

Background: Healthcare exposure may increase drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization risk. Nascent antimicrobial stewardship efforts in low- and middle-income countries require setting-specific data. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for inpatient drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization in a resource-limited setting in India. Methods: Patients age ≥ 6 months admitted with ≥24 h of fever to a tertiary hospital in Pune, India were enrolled in a prospective cohort. Perirectal swabs, collected on admission and hospitalization day 3 or 4, were cultured in vancomycin- and ceftriaxone-impregnated media to assess for ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CTRE) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPRE). Multivariable analyses assessed risk factors for drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization among participants without admission colonization. Results: Admission perirectal swabs were collected on 897 participants; 87 (10%) had CTRE and 14 (1.6%) had CPRE colonization. Admission CTRE colonization was associated with recent healthcare contact (p < 0.01). Follow-up samples were collected from 620 participants, 67 (11%) had CTRE and 21 (3.4%) had CPRE colonization. Among 561 participants without enrollment CTRE colonization, 49 (9%) participants were colonized with CTRE at follow-up. Detection of CTRE colonization among participants not colonized with CTRE at admission was independently associated with empiric third generation cephalosporin treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.8). Follow-up transition to CPRE colonization detection was associated with ICU admission (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.5). Conclusions: Patients who receive empiric third generation cephalosporins and are admitted to the ICU rapidly develop detectable CTRE and CPRE colonization. Improved antimicrobial stewardship and infection control measures are urgently needed upon hospital admission.

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Bharadwaj, R., Robinson, M. L., Balasubramanian, U., Kulkarni, V., Kagal, A., Raichur, P., … Mave, V. (2018). Drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization is associated with healthcare utilization and antimicrobial use among inpatients in Pune, India. BMC Infectious Diseases, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3390-4

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