Hyperprolactinemia has long been considered detrimental to fertility due to irregularity of ovulation. Whether mild hyperprolactinemia should be corrected before initiating an in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle (IVF/ICSI) has not been determined; this study aimed to examine how different levels of prolactin affect IVF outcomes. A total of 3,009 patients with basal prolactin level <50 ng/mL undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles for tubal or male factors were recruited in this study. Patients diagnosed with anovulation owing to polycystic ovarian syndrome or hyperandrogenism were ruled out. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between patients with basal prolactin levels higher or lower than the median level of prolactin (16.05 ng/mL). Multifactor analyses were carried out among four subgroups depending on different prolactin levels. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to explore the relationship between the ascending trend of prolactin levels over ovarian stimulation and the corresponding cumulative pregnancy outcomes. There were significantly higher numbers of oocytes (9 vs. 8, P = 0.013) and embryos (6 vs. 5, P = 0.015) in patients with basal prolactin higher than 16.05 ng/mL. Basal prolactin higher than 30 ng/mL was positively related to cumulative clinical pregnancy, and a level higher than 40 ng/mL was a good indicator for the cumulative live birth rate. Throughout ovarian stimulation, the prognosis of pregnancy improved with increasing prolactin levels. Patients with better cumulated pregnancy outcomes had significantly higher prolactin levels as well as a profoundly increasing trend during the stimulating process than those who did not conceive. For patients who underwent the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist long protocol IVF/ICSI treatment, a slightly higher prolactin level during the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocol was a positive indicator for cumulated pregnancy/live birth rates.
Zhang, D., Yuan, X., Zhen, J., Sun, Z., Deng, C., & Yu, Q. (2020). Mildly Higher Serum Prolactin Levels Are Directly Proportional to Cumulative Pregnancy Outcomes in in-vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00584