The immune system consists of an intricate network of organs, cells, and molecules responsible for maintaining the body's homeostasis and responding to aggression in general. Innate immunity operates in conjunction with adaptive immunity and is characterized by rapid response to aggression, regardless of previous stimulus, being the organism first line of defense. Its mechanisms include physical, chemical and biological barriers, cellular components, as well as soluble molecules. The organism first line of defense against tissue damage involves several steps closely integrated and constituted by different components of this system. The aim of this review is to restore the foundations of this response, which has high complexity and consists of several components that converge to articulate the development of adaptive immune response. We selected some of the following steps to review: Perception and molecular recognition of aggressive agents; activation of intracellular pathways, which result in vascular and tissue changes; production of a myriad of mediators with local and systemic effects on cell activation and proliferation, synthesis of new products involved in the chemoattraction and migration of cells specialized in destruction and removal of offending agent; and finally, tissue recovery with restoration of functional tissue or organ.
de Souza, A. W. S., Mesquita, D., Araújo, J. A. P., Catelan, T. T. T., Cruvinel, W. de M., Andrade, L. E. C., & da Silva, N. P. (2010, November). Immune system - part III the delicate balance of the immune system between tolerance and autoimmunity. Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0482-50042010000600007