It is unclear if habituation of hindbrain A2 metabolo-sensory neurons to recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH) correlates with estradiol-dependent adjustments in energy metabolism that favor positive energy balance. Laser-microdissected A2 cells from estradiol-or oil-implanted ovariectomized female rats were analyzed by Western blot to assess effects of three prior daily insulin injections on basal and hypoglycemic patterns of catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DβH) and rate-limiting energy pathway enzyme protein expression. Precedent hypoglycemia respectively decreased or increased baseline DβH expression in estradiol- (E) vs. oil (O)-treated rats; this protein profile was further suppressed or augmented in those animals at 2 hr after re-induction of hypoglycemia. These data suggest that estradiol may curtail A2 noradrenergic-controlled functions both in the midst of and between hypoglycemic bouts. Results also show that prior hypoglycemia exposure upregulated A2 neuron glycolytic enzyme protein levels when E was present, and exerted differential effects on basal and hypoglycemia-associated respiratory chain and fatty acid synthetic pathway enzyme expression. E may thus accordingly amplify glycolysis-derived metabolites/energy, coupled with reduced reliance on oxidative phosphorylation, and activate the fatty acid synthetic pathway during RIIH. E may also be of benefit by preventing maladaptive reductions in A2 neuron Krebs cycle/electron transport enzyme expression during re-exposure to hypoglycemia. Augmentation of negative energy balance during this recurring metabolic stress in the absence of E is a likely impetus for augmented vs. decreased A2 signaling of energy imbalance by DβH in O vs. E rats during RIIH.
Tamrakar, P., & Briski, K. P. (2017). Impact of recurrent hypoglycemic stress on hindbrain A2 nerve cell energy metabolism and catecholamine biosynthesis: Modulation by estradiol. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 77(1), 31–44. https://doi.org/10.21307/ane-2017-034