Association analysis of ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes

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Background: To determine association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADP ribosyltransferase-1 (ADPRT1), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-2 (GFPT2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genes with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes; and to identify epistatic interactionss between genes from the present study and those from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and chemokine-cytokine, dopaminergic and oxidative stress pathways (previously investigated using the same sample set).Methods: Type 2 diabetes subjects with CRI (serum creatinine ≥3.0 mg/dl) constituted the cases (n = 196), and ethnicity and age matched individuals with diabetes for a duration of ≥ 10 years, normal renal functions and normoalbuminuria recruited as controls (n = 225). Allelic and genotypic constitution of 10 polymorphisms (SNPs) from five genes namely- ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 with diabetic CRI was investigated. The genetic associations were evaluated by computation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study epistatic interactions between SNPs in different genes.Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms -429 T>C in RAGE and rs7725 C>T SNP in 3' UTR in GFPT2 gene showed a trend towards association with diabetic CRI. Investigation using miRBase statistical tool revealed that rs7725 in GFPT2 was a perfect target for predicted miRNA (hsa miR-378) suggesting the presence of the variant 'T' allele may result in an upregulation of GFPT2 contributing to diabetic renal complication. Epistatic interaction between SNPs in transforming growth factor TGF-β1 (investigated using the same sample set and reported elsewhere) and GFPT2 genotype was observed.Conclusions: Association of SNPs in RAGE and GFPT2 suggest that the genes involved in modulation of oxidative pathway could be major contributor to diabetic chronic renal insufficiency. In addition, GFPT2 mediated overproduction of TGF-β1 leading to endothelial expansion and thereby CRI seems likely, suggested by our observation of a significant interaction between GFPT2 with TGF-β1 genes. Further, identification of predicted miRNA targets spanning the associated SNP in GFPT2 implicates the rs7725 SNP in transcriptional regulation of the gene, and suggests GFPT2 could be a relevant target for pharmacological intervention. Larger replication studies are needed to confirm these observations. © 2010 Prasad et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.




Prasad, P., Tiwari, A. K., Kumar, K. M. P., Ammini, A. C., Gupta, A., Gupta, R., & Thelma, B. K. (2010). Association analysis of ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes. BMC Medical Genetics, 11(1).

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