Objective: To examine the time-of-day and Ramadan fasting (RF) effects on serum apolipoprotein-AI (Apo-AI) and B (Apo-B), lipoprotein particles-a (Lp-a), high-sensitive C-reactive-protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine (Hcy) during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). Design: Performance and biochemical measures were completed at two times-of-day (07:00 and 17:00 h), 1-week before RF (BR), the second week of RF (SWR), and the fourth week of RF (ER). Setting: For each session, subjects performed the YYIRT, and blood samples were taken before and 3-min after the test for biochemical measures. Participants: Fifteen soccer players. Main Outcome Measures: Total distance during the YYIRT, core temperature, body composition, dietary intakes, lipid (HDL-C, LDL-C, Apo-AI, B and Lp-a) and inflammatory (hs-CRP and Hcy) profiles. Results: Performances during the YYIRT were higher in the evening than the morning BR (P < 0.05), but this fluctuation was not observed during RF. Moreover, LDL-C, ApoB, and Lp-a were stable throughout the daytime BR. However, during RF, they decreased at 17:00 h ( P < 0.05). Likewise, HDL-C and Apo-AI increased after the exercise and were higher at 17:00 h BR (P < 0.001). Moreover, these parameters increased during RF (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Hcy and hs-CRP increased during the exercise (P < 0.01) with higher evening levels BR. During ER, the diurnal pattern of Hcy was inversed (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study concluded that caloric restriction induced by RF seems to ameliorate lipid and inflammatory markers of cardiovascular health during intermittent exercise performed in the evening. © 2013 Hammouda et al.
Hammouda, O., Chtourou, H., Aloui, A., Chahed, H., Kallel, C., Miled, A., … Souissi, N. (2013). Concomitant effects of Ramadan fasting and time-of-day on apolipoprotein AI, B, Lp-a and homocysteine responses during aerobic exercise in Tunisian soccer players. PLoS ONE, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079873