Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is conventionally used as an adjuvant immunotherapy to reduce the recurrence of bladder cancer. To address the issues of efficacy and safety, an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GLe) was evaluated for its interaction with BCG. In a model of premalignant human uroepithelial cells (HUC-PC), GLe exerted immediate cytotoxic effects while BCG showed a delayed response, given that both were immunological active in inducing the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Synergistic cytotoxic effects were observed when cells were either coincubated with both drugs or firstly preincubated with GLe. Synergism between GLe and BCG was demonstrated to achieve a complete cytostasis in 24 hours, and such effects were progressed in the subsequent 5 days. However, the pretreatment of GLe resulted in suppression of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretions without affecting the cytotoxicity. Given that numerous proinflammatory cytokines are associated with the high side effects toll of BCG, results herein suggested the potential implications of GL to supplement the BCG immunotherapy in bladder cancer, for better efficacy and reducing side effects. © 2012 John Wai-man Yuen et al.
Yuen, J. W. M., Gohel, M. D. I., & Ng, C. F. (2012). Synergistic cytotoxic effects of ganoderma lucidum and bacillus calmette guérin on premalignant urothelial HUC-PC cells and its regulation on proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/147896