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Background: Myocardial infarction remains the leading cause of mortality in developed countries despite recent advances in its prevention and treatment. Regenerative therapies based on resident cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are a promising alternative to conventional treatments. However, CPCs resident in the heart are quite rare. It is unclear how these CPCs can be isolated and cultured efficiently and what the effects of long-term culture in vitro are on their 'stemness' and differentiation potential, but this is critical knowledge for CPCs' clinical application.Results: Here, we isolated stem cell antigen-1 positive cells from postnatal mouse heart by magnetic active cell sorting using an iron-labeled anti-mouse Sca-1 antibody, and cultured them long-term in vitro. We tested stemness marker expression and the proliferation ability of long-term cultured Sca-1+ cells at early, middle and late passages. Furthermore, we determined the differentiation potential of these three passages into cardiac cell lineages (cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells) after induction in vitro. The expression of myocardial, smooth muscle and endothelial cell-specific genes and surface markers were analyzed by RT-PCR and IF staining. We also investigated the oncogenicity of the three passages by subcutaneously injecting cells in nude mice. Overall, heart-derived Sca-1+ cells showed CPC characteristics: long-term propagation ability in vitro, non-tumorigenic in vivo, persistent expression of stemness and cardiac-specific markers, and multipotent differentiation into cardiac cell lineages.Conclusions: Our research may bring new insights to myocardium regeneration, for which even a small number of biopsy-derived CPCs could be enriched and propagated long term in vitro to obtain sufficient seed cells for cell injection or cardiac tissue engineering.
Wang, H., Chen, H., Feng, B., Wang, X., He, X., Hu, R., … Xu, Z. (2014). Isolation and characterization of a Sca-1+/CD31- progenitor cell lineage derived from mouse heart tissue. BMC Biotechnology, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6750-14-75