Isoetes L. is an ancient genus of heterosporous lycopsids with a unique phylogenetic position. Repeated adaptations to environmental changes over time have contributed to occupying a variety of niches in Isoetes. However, we know little about how they adapt to the environmental changes, and the sequence resources are very limited in public databases. Isoetes sinensis is an amphibious plant in this genus, alternating frequently between terrestrial and aquatic environments. In this study, I. sinensis was applied to investigate the adaptations under terrestrial (TC) and submerged (ST) conditions using Illumina RNA-sequencing technology. Approximately 87 million high-quality reads were yielded and assembled into 31,619 unigenes with an average length of 1618 bp. Overall, 28,208 unigenes were annotated against the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Non-redundant (Nr), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Moreover, we identified 1740 differentially expressed genes with 1146 up-regulated and 594 down-regulated genes under TC. GO annotation revealed that stress-relevant categories were remarkably enriched, and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the phytohormone signalings and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly influenced. Furthermore, a total of 1646 transcription factors (TF) were identified and classified into 54 TF families; among them, 180 TFs were dynamic between terrestrial and submerged conditions. This study is the first report for Isoetes to generate numerous sequences and establish general understandings about the adaptations in the changing environments. The dataset provides a foundation for novel gene discoveries, comparative genomics, functional genomics, and phylogenetics in Isoetes.
Yang, T., & Liu, X. (2016). Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Isoetes Sinensis Under Terrestrial and Submerged Conditions. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 34(1), 136–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11105-015-0906-6