Background:Data regarding the efficacy of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) are mixed. Opioid treatment programs (OTPs) provide a convenient framework for DAART. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared DAART and self-administered therapy (SAT) among HIV-infected subjects attending five OTPs in Baltimore, MD.Methods:HIV-infected individuals attending OTPs were eligible if they were not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) or were virologically failing ART at last clinical assessment. In subjects assigned to DAART, we observed one ART dose per weekday at the OTP for up to 12 months. SAT subjects administered ART at home. The primary efficacy comparison was the between-arm difference in the average proportions with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL during the intervention phase (3-, 6-, and 12-month study visits), using a logistic regression model accounting for intra-person correlation due to repeated observations. Adherence was measured with electronic monitors in both arms.Results:We randomized 55 and 52 subjects from five Baltimore OTPs to DAART and SAT, respectively. The average proportions with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL during the intervention phase were 0.51 in DAART and 0.40 in SAT (difference 0.11, 95% CI: -0.020 to 0.24). There were no significant differences between arms in electronically-measured adherence, average CD4 cell increase from baseline, average change in log10 HIV RNA from baseline, opportunistic conditions, hospitalizations, mortality, or the development of new drug resistance mutations.Conclusions:In this randomized trial, we found little evidence that DAART provided clinical benefits compared to SAT among HIV-infected subjects attending OTPs.Trial Registration:ClinicalTrails.gov NCT00279110. © 2013 Lucas et al.
Lucas, G. M., Mullen, B. A., Galai, N., Moore, R. D., Cook, K., McCaul, M. E., … Rand, C. (2013). Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Infected Individuals in Opioid Treatment Programs: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial. PLoS ONE, 8(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068286