Continuous EEG monitoring in ICU

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Abstract

Background: Continuous electroencephalogram (CEEG) monitoring is increasingly being used for brain monitoring in neurocritical care setting. This is because of the proven effectiveness of CEEG in diagnosing nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) as a cause of unexplained consciousness disorder. CEEG has been demonstrated to be effective in determining the response to, and outcome of, NCSE treatment. Main body: In this review article, the authors described the indication and methods of CEEG and diagnosis based on EEG pattern. As a condition characterized by unexplained consciousness disorder, NCSE is frequently encountered in the neurocritical care setting and is only accompanied by an altered EEG change without any clinically apparent manifestation, such as convulsion. Thus, it is considered a form of status epilepticus manifesting mainly with consciousness disorder. This is a diagnostic challenge but should not be overlooked as NCSE is a curable condition. However, CEEG is required for the correct diagnosis of NCSE, which is difficult to perform in daily clinical practice. There also are several challenges regarding urgent EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit setting, including system-related problems, such as the preparation of mobile EEG devices and collodion-applied electrodes; human resource-related problems, such as staffing of EEG technicians and physicians who can respond flexibly to unscheduled needs; and EEG-specific difficulties in interpretation/diagnosis. These issues preclude the wide spread of CEEG in daily practice. Conclusion: Recently, importance of CEEG was well accepted; however, no definitive diagnostic criteria exist for identifying EEG patterns suggestive of NCSE, especially the ambiguous significance of periodic discharges (PDs) further complicates the diagnosis of NCSE. Thus, analyzing the change in EEG patterns over time is important for the correct diagnosis of NCSE. Further studies are needed to collect sufficient CEEG data and assess the outcome of patients who have undergone therapeutic interventions.

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APA

Kubota, Y., Nakamoto, H., Egawa, S., & Kawamata, T. (2018, July 17). Continuous EEG monitoring in ICU. Journal of Intensive Care. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40560-018-0310-z

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