The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and bone mineral density (BMD). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. BMD of total hip, femoral neck, anterio-posterior (AP) spine, wrist, and total body were measured by DXA using standardized procedures. Mean levels of BMD across gender-specific tertiles of CES-D score were obtained using ANOVA and ANCOVA. Participants included 97 police officers (41 women; 29-64 years). Depressive symptoms were not associated with BMD at any site among men. However among women, mean BMD values decreased across increasing (worsening) tertiles of CES-D for the AP spine (low CES-D=1.22 ± 0.04; medium CES-D=1.05±0.04; high CES-D=1.03±0.04 g/cm2; p=0.035) and for the whole body (low=1.26±0.03; medium=1.20±0.03; high=1.11±0.03 g/cm2; p=0.018) after adjustment. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower BMD among female but not male officers.
Charles, L. E., Fekedulegn, D., Miller, D. B., Wactawski-Wende, J., Violanti, J. M., Andrew, M. E., & Burchfiel, C. M. (2012). Depressive symptoms and bone mineral density among police officers in a northeastern US City. Global Journal of Health Science, 4(3), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v4n3p39