Annexins are a well-known multigene family of Ca2+-regulated phospholipid-binding and membrane-binding proteins. Recent work employing annexin-knockdown or - knockout models has provided new insights into the biological functions of different annexin proteins. Transient annexin depletion by RNA interference and the expression of dominant-negative mutant proteins has revealed roles for the proteins in membrane processes ranging from the control of membrane structure to certain membrane transport phenomena. Although such functions correlate well with the ability of annexins to interact with cellular membranes in a reversible and regulated manner, some activities are membrane independent, probably because annexins can also engage in specific protein-protein interactions. Among other things, this is evident in annexin A1- and A2-knockout mice, which show impaired regulation of neutrophil extravasation and defects in plasmin generation, respectively.
Rescher, U., & Gerke, V. (2004, June 1). Annexins - Unique membrane binding proteins with diverse functions. Journal of Cell Science. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.01245