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Milk is not just food but most likely a genetic transfection system activating mTORC1 signaling for postnatal growth

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Abstract

Milk has been recognized to represent a functionally active nutrient system promoting neonatal growth of mammals. Cell growth is regulated by the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). There is still a lack of information on the mechanisms of mTORC1 up-regulation by milk consumption. This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. Importantly, milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes. Whereas human breast milk is the ideal food for infants allowing appropriate postnatal growth and species-specific metabolic programming, persistent high milk signaling during adolescence and adulthood by continued coẃs milk consumption may promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. © 2013 Melnik et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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Melnik, B. C., John, S. M., & Schmitz, G. (2013). Milk is not just food but most likely a genetic transfection system activating mTORC1 signaling for postnatal growth. Nutrition Journal. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-103

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