Resonant X-ray scattering measurements were performed on CeB6, CeAl, γ-Ce, and α-Ce at various incident-photon energies near the Ce 4d threshold. A pronounced inelastic scattering structure which has 4f character is observed at about 4 eV below the elastic peak. The structure shows a distinct resonant behavior as well as a dependence on the degree of 4f hybridization and can therefore be attributed to charge-transfer excitations to the 4f0 state. The intensity of the elastic peak increases when going from the systems with low Kondo temperature TK to those with high TK which is consistent with a Kondo scale behavior. By analyzing the scattering data, a controversial issue on the validity of a single-impurity Anderson model in heavy-fermion materials is addressed.
Butorin, S., Magnuson, M., Ivanov, K., Shuh, D., Takahashi, T., Kunii, S., … Nordgren, J. (1999). Resonant inelastic soft-X-ray scattering at the 4d edge of Ce-based heavy-fermion materials. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 101, 783–786. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0368-2048(98)00369-7